Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and Nation-State Forming
As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire-building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class and culture also developed that both facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires and new states, as well as justifying anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.